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  • Terakhir diperbaharui : Senin, 04 Juni 2018
  • Penulis : Devi Puspita Sari, S.Komp
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By: Taufik Maryusman, S.Gz, M.Gizi (Clinic), M.Pd

(UPNVJ Nutrition Department Lecturer)


Indonesia has two major nutritional problems. In addition to malnutrition, we also begin to overweight. Toddlers, school children, adolescents, and adults are still a lot thinner, but at the same time started a lot of fat.

State of Nutrition in Indonesia

Unfinished nutritional problems are the problem of poor nutrition and short (stunting). In 2013 the prevalence of child stunting 37.3%, meaning 1 among our three children most likely short. While the prevalence of malnutrition has decreased from 31% (1989) to 17.9% (2010). With this achievement, the target of target SDGs 1 is the decrease in the prevalence of less nutrition to 15.5% by the year 2019 is expected to be achieved.

The disparity of nutrition problem less by province very wide. Some provinces are experiencing rapid progress and their prevalence has been relatively low, but some other provinces have a very high prevalence of malnutrition.

Results of Basic Health Research 2010 revealed that knowledge factors, community behavior is very influential on the incidence of malnutrition in the community. Other data indicate that the prevalence of underweight is also influenced by the level of education.

Meanwhile, the problem of nutrition that threatens public health (emerging) is more nutrition. This is a new problem over the last few years, showing an increase. The prevalence of more nutritional, both in groups of children and adults increased by almost one percent each year. The prevalence of more nutrition in children and adults, respectively 14,4% (2007) and 21,7% (2010).

In addition, the general pattern of food consumption still does not reflect the appropriate diet with guidelines balanced nutrition. Characteristics of community food consumption patterns (Susenas, 2011), among others: Group consumption of oil and fat, already above the recommendation of adequacy; Vegetable/fruit consumption only reached 63.3%; Consumption of animal food 62.1%; The consumption of nuts 54%; Tuber consumption 35.8%; and the contribution of processed food in the daily diet is already high.

Deficiency and excess nutrients are equally negative. Lack of nutrition is closely related to the slow growth of growth (especially in children), low endurance so easily sick, lack of intelligence and low work productivity. The excess nutrients are characterized by being overweight and obese-at risk for various chronic/degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, CHD (Coronary heart disease), stroke, gout, and some cancers.

What is the solution, which is "Balanced Nutrition"

Balanced nutrition is an everyday diet that contains nutrients in types and amounts appropriate to the body's needs, taking into account the principle of dietary variation, physical activity, hygiene and ideal body weight.

1. The importance of getting used to eating diverse foods

It is the first principle of balanced nutrition that every human being needs a diverse diet because no food contains all the nutrients the body needs, except breast milk for infants up to 6 months of age. The more diverse the more fulfilled the need for various nutrients.

A balanced diet not only takes into account the macronutrients and water, but also the source of micronutrients.

Macro Nutrition: Carboohydrate, Protein and Fat

Micro Nutrition; Vitamins and Minerals

2. The Importance of Clean Lifestyle

Principle Two of the diet with nutrition is a pattern of clean life even in Islamic religion there is a rule that says "Cleanliness is part of Faith". A balanced nutritious pattern would be useless if not followed by a clean lifestyle. Such as washing hands before eating with clean water and soap, serving food in a closed condition so as not to be infested by flies or insects, and washing vegetables and fruit with water that flows and clean.

3. The importance of active lifestyle and exercise

Here demanded a balance between the intake and energy expenditure for the move. When the incoming energy is less than the energy needed for activity, Weight Loss will be thin and become thin. Conversely, if the high energy intake of activities released then it can happen obesity. Now we are hit by a syndrome called a relaxed lifestyle which encourages obesity and the emergence of degenerative diseases, as part of a double burden of nutritional problems.

Our predecessors of the early generations of Islam pointed out the importance of forming a strong body as we must continue to cultivate our faith by studying religion and doing good deeds. Umar bin Al-Khattab Radi-Allahu 'anhu said:

علموا أبنائكم السباحة والرماية وركوب الخيل

"Teach your children to swim, shoot, and ride."

All examples of such activity are in order to prepare and train our bodies to always be strong and healthy in carrying out the duties that Allah Almighty has given us. In the book 'Nida' ilal Murabbiyyin ', Asy-Shaykh Muhammad Jamil Zainu rahimahullah when commenting on the hadith, "A strong believer is better and more Allah Subhanah Wa Ta'ala loves than the weak believer", he said, "Because the believer the stronger will be stronger and more enthusiastic in the worship of worship such as shalat, fasting, hajj, jihad, and the other. "

Therefore Familiarize live active life and exercise regularly is part of a balanced lifestyle.

4. The importance of ideal body weight

The balance between food intake and activity can be measured by ups and downs Weight loss. A healthy body, among others, with the body's ability to maintain ideal weight. The definition of ideal weight is the weight that matches the height.

5. Give Breast Milk to Baby for 6 Months

Exclusive breastfeeding is the provision of breast milk to infants aged 0-6 months without any additional food or beverage in addition to drugs for therapy (disease treatment). breast milk is one type of food that satisfies all the elements of the baby's needs both physical, social and spiritual psychology. Breast milk contains nutrients, hormones, growth immunity, anti-allergies, and anti-inflammatory.

Nutrients in breast milk include nearly 200 food substances. Breast milk is a God-infused fluid that meets the baby's nutritional needs and protects it against possible disease attacks. The balance of nutrients in breast milk is at its best and milk has the best shape for a young baby's body. At the same time, breast milk is also very rich in nutrients that accelerate the growth of brain cells and the development of the nervous system.

In the verses of God explain about breast milk, that is mothers should nurse their children for two full years, that is for those who want to perfect the breastfeeding "(Surah Al-Baqarah: 233).

Here are some benefits of breastfeeding, among others:

Easy to digestBreast milk contains high-quality nutrients that are useful for baby's growth and development.Breast milk protein is more readily absorbed than in cow's milk.Beneficial for intelligence, because it contains fatty acids and amino acids that are important for brain development.Improve immunity, so the baby does not get sick easily.Clean and pollution free.Direct contact between mother and baby will form a bond of affection that can help the baby's growth and psychological development.Clean and cheap, so safe for babies and frugal

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